Pelvic Inflammatory Disease


What is pelvic inflammatory disease?

Infection in the female reproductive organs causes inflammation which is medically termed as pelvic inflammatory disease or PID.

The most common origin of the infection is sexually transmitted disease and leads to permanent impairment in the lining of the cervix, uterus, felopian tubes, ovaries and other associated parts of the genitor-urinary system of the female. In serious conditions, PID interferes with female fertility. The incidence rate is for pelvic inflammatory diseases of sexually active females and who is having sex with multiple partners.

pelvic inflammatory disease


Symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease

The symptoms are ranged from mild to severe.

Pelvic Inflammtory Disease image

The main common symptom is lower abdominal pain. Other symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Foul smelling vaginal discharge
  • Pain produces during and after sexual intercourse
  • Pain during micturition (urination)
  • Irregular period dates
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue

Causes

For development of the female pelvic inflammatory diseases, infection producing bacteria enter into the internal genito-urinary system through the vagina.

pelvic inflammmatory disease causes

The most common infecting conditions gonorrhea and Chlamydia (STDs) are mainly responsible for the development of the PID. The progression of PID, is takes time, may be a few days to a few months, depending upon the how fast bacteria is traveled from vagina to an internal organ.

ACUTE PID pathology

Some factors which involve in case of triggering the PID:

  • Sexual involvement in early age (bellow 25 years)
  • Sexual intercourse with multiple partner
  • Unsafe sexual activity
  • Douching
  • IUD use as intra-uterine device
  • History of  pelvic inflammatory disease

Diagnosis

For diagnosing the PID, it is necessary to discuss all the sign and symptoms with a doctor to rule out the condition. For diagnosis, pelvic examination, cervical culture and urine test are conducted.

During a pelvic examination, small sample taken out from the vagina through cotton swab and send it to the laboratory for examining the causative organism.

Doctors may further recommend the following tests for obtaining a confirmatory interpretation:

Pelvic Ultrasound

The ultrasound waves are creates images for the internal parts of the pelvic region.

Endometrial biopsy

Any findings of overgrowth need for biopsy test

Laparoscopy

In this process, small insertion of the abdominal cavity conducted, through which a lighted medical device is inserted to get the proper view of the pelvic organs.

Treatment

The included treatments for pelvic inflammatory diseases are as follows:

Antibiotics

  • To subside the infection, usually a combination of the antibiotics prescribed by the doctors. After obtaining the culture test reports, depending upon the nature of the microorganism the specific antibiotic treatment is recommended.
  • The repeated doctor visit and provide the follow up regarding the condition is another important aspect in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Completion of the antibiotic therapy is essential, even the patient feels that health condition is better, and then also completion of antibiotic course important for prevention of recurrence and also to prevent the development of the secondary infection.
  • If partner is affected by sexually transmitted disease, then proper treatment requires treating the infection, otherwise recurrence will be frequent and chronic condition may lead to infertility.
  • Avoidance of sexual activity is preferable during the course of the treatment and after completion of the course, both the partner go for a checkup and assurance of clearing all the related infections is needed before continuing the sexual relationship.

Complications

The complication arises when fallopian tubes are accumulated in the fallopian tubes and causes the lining of the inner layer become damaged, then that lesions may spread to other genitor-urinary systems.

Ectopic pregnancy

This is a serious complication associated with PID. The fertilized egg cannot reach to uterus for further growth and that causes severe bleeding. Immediate surgical intervention is required to control the complication, otherwise it will be fatal.

Pelvic inflammatory condition

This can lead to permanent damage to the reproductive system and infertility may be a result of this. The chronic untreated condition increases the risk of infertility.

Chronic pain

Pelvic inflammatory disease condition causes chronic pain which can last for months to years. Injury in fallopian tubes and other reproductive organs causes pain during sexual intercourse.

References

  1. What should I do if I think I have an STI (sexually transmitted disease) at http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pelvic-inflammatory-disease/basics/treatment/con-20022341
  2. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/pelvicinflammatorydisease.html
  3. http://www.healthline.com/health/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid
  4. How do I get PID?, How do I know if I have PID? Can PID be cured? at http://www.cdc.gov/std/pid/stdfact-pid.htm
  5. http://www.medicinenet.com/pelvic_inflammatory_disease/page3.htm
  6. http://www.webmd.com/women/guide/sexual-health-your-guide-to-pelvic-inflammatory-disease

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