If one or both the fallopian tubes are inflamed, then the condition is medically termed as Salpingitis. The inflammation occurs due to infection, and often it has been noted that adjoining lymph node helps with mobility of infectious agent when one fallopian tube affected by infection and that extend to another fallopian tube.
The commencement of the fallopian tubes is from uterus one from each side and meet near ovary and they promote ova (eggs) towards the womb. Salpingitis mainly affects younger women and prolonged untreated conditions may interfere with the fertility, if inflammation causes enduring obstruction of the fallopian tube.
- The entrance of infectious agent is usually through the vagina and usual reason of infection is sexually transmitted diseases. The chances of development of salpingitis are less for virgins. Rarely, other than sexual intercourse, this condition arises after childbirth, miscarriage, abortion, intra-uterine device insertion and any gynecological surgery.
Salpingitis is two types: acute and chronic
- Acute salpingitis: In this type of salpingitis, the inner lining of the tube is stick together due to sticky fluid is discharged from the infection site. The fallopian tube gradually become reddened and inflamed and may attach with bowel wall. In rare cases, infection of fallopian tube causes rip apart and lead to a serious condition where the infection spread to the abdominal cavity.
- Chronic salpingitis: The outbreak of the infection is sudden, but longer duration illness is associated. This does not manifest any serious symptoms. In this condition the infectious agent stayed in the fallopian tube for prolonged period and causes irritable inflammatory condition. Gradually the infection spread to the ovaries, as tubes become filled with pus and associated tissues are affected. This condition is termed as adhesion.
Symptoms of Salpingitis
In case of mild infection, the salpingitis does not create any symptoms and affected women totally unaware of the incidence of infection and gradually fallopian tube become damaged.
In general the salpingitis provides following symptoms which mainly arise after menstrual cycle:
- Foul smell discoloured vaginal discharge.
- Spotting between menstrual cycle
- Camp or pain during menstrual cycle (dysmenorrhoea).
- Discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse
- Pain on both the side of the abdomen
- Back pain
- Poly urea (repeated urination)
- Nausea and vomiting
In case of acute salpingitis, onset of pain is the first indication. Initially pain is started at whole abdomen, but gradually the pain moves towards the right and left lower corner of the abdomen, specifically at the site of the fallopian tube situated. It can be affected only one side, but it also affects both the side. Other possible symptoms are:
- Increase body temperature
- Occasional vaginal discharge
In case of chronic salpingitis, following are the symptoms
- Severe pain during menstrual cycle
- Dyspareunia (pain during sexual intercourse)
- Foul smelled vaginal discharge
The infection in the genitor-urinary organs causes development of the salpingitis. In maximum cases, during unsafe sexual intercourse causes the transmission of infection into the uterus and from there it travels to the fallopian tube.
Multiple partner sexual intercourse or those who are actively participating in sexual activity are primarily suffering from salpingitis. Unsterilized operation, including child delivery and even the insertion of the IUD can develop acute salpingitis.
The bacterial infection mainly causes salpingitis. The included infectious agents are gonococci responsible for sexually transmitted disease such as gonorrhoea and Chlamydia. Other than these, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Mycoplasma are the responsible for the infection and which can turn to salpingitis.
To restrict the complication it is necessary for early diagnosis of the salpingitis. Till now no single diagnosis is able to interpret the salpingitis and for detection, doctors need to conduct a series of tests, as in some cases salpingitis is asymptomatic. This is often misguided as the main symptoms e.g., abdominal pain is quite common in case of ovarian cyst, ectopic pregnancy, and appendicitis.
In general, doctors first examine the inflammation that is present at the localised lymph gland.
After initial vital sign check up and other discussion, pelvic examination, performs to rule out the patient condition and also a thorough knowledge of patient history and symptoms are required to know. Then accordingly following tests are ordered to perform:
- Urine test is conducted for detecting the type of infection
- Total blood count is also recommended for infection status.
- Culture test is conducted for mucous or cellular discharges obtained from vaginal or cervical for check the infection.
- For take images, pelvic ultrasonography is required.
- Doctors also some time conduct laproscopy for checking the fallopian tube. To perform this test, a willowy instrument inserted through abdominal incision.
The outcome of the treatment depends upon early detection of the disease, complete rest that need hospitalization, proper choosing of antibiotic therapy, which is active against multiple microbial attacks and lastly to restrict the recurrence, patient education, specifically providing the knowledge of safe sexual activity is very important and also increase the awareness regarding the complications is an essential part of effective treatment.
- Oral antibiotic therapy can treat the mild infection.
- In case of severe case, immediate hospitalization is needed, as a patient need complete rest and to lessen the pain IV intervention of analgesic mainly prescribed to control the pain.
- Depending upon the laboratory test result, antibiotic therapy is prescribed for the reduction of the infection. Initially drugs are given via the parenteral route and gradually change the route of administration and through oral medication is prescribed when the patient is in stable condition.